The 1967 stock operated on the Victoria line between 1 September 1968, when the line opened, and 30 June 2011. Some stock was previously tested between Woodford and Hainault on the Central line between 21 February 1968 and 1984 because the same Automatic Train Operation (ATO) system is used on both lines.
The fleet consisted of 316 carriages, to make 39.5 train sets, being made by Metro-Cammell and refurbished at Rosyth. The withdrawal of the 1972 MkI stock carriages where transferred to the stock fleet during the 1990s creating a fleet of 43, 1967 stock trains. These transferred carriages did not feature Automatic Train Operation (ATO) and where used as non-driving motors, as a result, and positioned in the middle of the trains rather than at the ends, the top speed of these trains was 80km/h (50mph). At the beginning of their withdrawal, in 2010, the 1967 stock had achieved a mean distance of failures of over 14,000km (8,700 miles).
Every complete train consisted of two four-carriage units coupled together, the trains being equip with Automatic Train Operation (ATO) required the train operator to simultaneously press two buttons in the cab to start the automatic process to the next station. These where the first London Underground rolling stock to be constructed with wrap-around windows in the drivers cabin.
London Underground had previously commissioned and constructed a prototype batch of 1960 stock to test a number a new features, initially intending that this would lead to a production stock to replace the Standard stock that was running on the Central line. However, increasing passenger numbers and the unreliability of the Standard stock lead to the decision to construct a rolling stock as a continuation of the 1959 stock, which was currently being constructed for use on the Piccadilly line, this was called the 1962 stock and was constructed as a continuation on the same production line without a break.
The 1967 stock proved to be the first stock where the previous enhancements, that were tested with the 1960 stock, could be included in a production rolling stock. These where designed for use on the Victoria line and every train consisted of eight-carriages, marshalled as two four-carriage units with each unit with a driving motor at either end and two trailer carriages between them. The motor carriages outer ends where fitted with Wedglock automatic couplers and all the carriages where semi-permanently coupled together, it was not expected that the units would enter service uncoupled and this arrangement on previous rolling stock where uncoupling required simultaneous operations in both cabs, the uncoupling could be started in the first cabin and concluded in the second afterwards.
The Victoria line was constructed and equip with Automatic Train Operation (ATO) equipment, however, trains included a single controller that would allow the trains to be operated manually, for use in the depots and in the event of an emergency, this incorporated both traction control and braking. Controls for the doors where included in the drivers cabin along with a facility to isolate either of the two coupled units from the leading cabin where included. All the control circuits where switched by cam-operated micro-switches for the first time on a tube-sized rolling stock and where used on the traction and brake controllers, disconnecting units, fault isolating switches and various other control equipment, resulting in a significant reduction to the electrical inspections that where required to be carried out.
The trains where equip with Rheostatic braking and required changes to the standard Pneumatic Camshaft Motors (PCM) controllers, to include the switching in of the rheostats. When a train needed to be stopped, rheostatic breaking was the first to be used, after which friction brakes on the trailers would be used, and if required, friction brakes on the motor could be used. However, if a train was travelling slower than 14.5km/h (10mph), to slow the friction brakes would always be used. Traction was supplied by four motors, one on each axle, located on each bogie where permanently wired in series and the traction controller preformed a series of switching the pairs of motors. The handbarke was operated using hydraulic power and remained locked until the hydraulic pressure was used to release it.
The windows consisted of two large windows between each set of doors which gave a double glazed look, similar to the design of the 1960 prototype stock. The doors opened into a gap between the inner and outer skins, however, the doors where curved so the top was higher to allow the passengers to see station signs without leaving the train and visibility was improved for the driver with the wrap-around window for the cabin. At stations, loading times where improved by providing sit-back seats next to the doors, to prevent passengers standing near the doors from blacking the exit. The lighting was provided by fluorescent tubes with two lights fed directly by the battery through an invertor, this allowed them to remain lit if the motor alternator shut down. The trains used two types of motor alternator, some manufactured by Associated Electrical Industries (AEI) which generated 230v at 850Hz, this was stepped down to 115v for lighting and 58v for the battery charger; the other was manufactured by English Electric which generated 60v at 850Hz, which was stepped up for the lighting.
The trains where first delivered to Ruislip depot on the Central line, following an initial preparation to go into service, they where transferred to Hainault depot where they where ran as single units to ensure the Automatic Train Operation (ATO) system could be thoroughly tested. When they passed their initial tests they where transported to Leytonstone where battery locomotives hauled them over the National Rail tracks to Northumberland Park depot. After the Victoria line opened in September 1968 the trains where transferred from Ruislip directly to Northumberland Park depot via a connecting link between the Victoria and Piccadilly lines at Finsbury Park. When the 1960 stock was in need of modification and an overhaul, some trains where transferred back to the Central line to serve the section between Woodford and Hainault.
With the Victoria line extension to Brixton the line needed additional rolling stock and a further 18 four-carriage units where constructed, these where identical to their predecessors and followed the same numbering system where the first batch ended. However, the line has increasing traffic which would eventually require further rolling stock, but no other stock was equip to operate on the Automatic Train Operation (ATO) system or automatically. The 1972 MkI stock was similar, although constructed as a seven-carriage formation, this incorperated a four-carriage unit, and a three-carriage unit consisting of a driving motor, a trailer, an uncoupling driving motor, which had no cabin for the driver but was fitted with a shunting control cabinet at the outer end. The main difference was that the 1972 MkI stock was designed for two-person handling with the guard travelling at the ends of the motor carriages and was reversible because it was constructed for use on the Northern line where the Kennington loop could result in either end of the train facing northwards, and the 1968 stock being designed for one-person-operations over an automatic line.
The equipment was compatible between the stocks and some 1972 MkI stock where modified for use on the Victoria line. Two seven-carriage trains would be split, with the uncoupling-driving-motors disguarded, providing three four-carriage units. The eight-carriage services woould have their outer motors removed, and used to replace the inners of an eight-carriage 1967 stock train releasing two motor cars fitted with Automatic Train Operation (ATO) equipment, this would then be fitted to the outer ends of the 1972 MkI stock.
The Victoria line was opened as an automatic railway and the 1967 stock was needed to operate over the line. The system of Automatic Train Operation (ATO) that was implemented on the Victoria line used two types of coded signals which where fed into the running rails of the line and picked up by two independent coils on the train.
The first signal is a safety signalling system, which uses a continuous encoded signal at 125Hz, this is used to pass codes at 420, 270 or 180 pulses per minute (ppm) to control the controls, however, if these codes failed the emergency brake would be applied to the train. The train receiving signals at 180 pulses per minute would operate the train up to 40km/h (25mph) but if the power was shut off it would be unable to restart the power for the train. A pulse at 270 pulses per minute was able to operate the trains, the the same fashion, but would be able to reapply the power if it had been shut off. The final 420 pulses per minute was able to operate the train at the set speed limits set by the driving system, which was what the second rail was used to pass to the train.
A series of short sections of running rails was used with the driving command system, 3m (10ft) long sections called 'spots' carried the encoded signals between 1kHz and 20kHz along the rails. The speed of the signals effected the speed which the train would travel at, a signal encoded at 100Hz represented the train travelling at 1.6km/h (1mph), at 3.5kHz represented 56km/h (35mph), and a signal at 2kHz represented a travelling speed of 35km/h (20mph). However, a 15kHz spot would indicate the traction motors should be shut down but the train was able to coast, whereas a 20kHz spot would indicate to stop the train as this was next to a signal at danger. Approaching a station the speed control spot applied the brakes at different rates depending on the speed the train was travelling compared to the target speed on the rails. When the speed was below 6.4km/h (4mph) the brakes where slightly released to ensure a smooth stop, the resting position should be 1.5m (5ft) from the desired stopping point.
The braking spots where provided every 8km/h (5mph) increments from the maximum expected speeds downwards, however, if a train was stopped at a 20kHz spot then the actual speed when approaching a station would be slower and the outer points would be ignored; speed control was by an electric governor and frequency generator that was mounted to one of the traction motors with an overriding governor connected to the axles of the trailer carriages. The trains where fitted with a fail-safe trip valve which was connected to the emergency brakes, this was operated by the mechanical governor, if the speed exceeded 40km/h (25mph) when the 420 code was not being received or if the the speed exceeded 80km/h (50mph) under any circumstance, or, the speed exceeded 18.5km/h (11.5mph) when being operated in manual mode. When saftey codes where still being recived the trains could be driven in manual mode up to 40km/h (25mph), however if there is no saftey signals the trains could be operated up to 16km/h (10mph) which was normally used inside the depot because the tracks where not encoded, or in the event of a mechanical failure. The main innovation of this stock was the driver was able to control the doors and to start the train the driver had to press two buttons, with the train taking over control automatically.
The 1967 stock was fitted wit an automated voice announcer system, some of the announcements where amended with the arrival of Eurostar at Kings Cross At Pancras and London Overground to Euston, however, some announcements are made by the train operator.
As a part of the Victoria line modernisation, the 1967 stock was replaced with the 2009 stock, the first prototype 2009 stock train arrived in 2007 and the production trains arrived after that, with the first train entering service on 21 July 2009. The first eight-carriages to be scrapped from the 1967 stock where in January 2010 by C F Booth of Rotherham.
The 1967 stock was unable to run between Walthamstow Central and Seven Sisters from 29 May 2011 at 00:33 because the new signalling was incompatible and the decommissioning of the older one. The last 1967 stock train to operate from Walthamstow Central was formed of the units 3075 and 3078 as set number 246.
The final passenger service for the 1967 stock on the Victoria line ran on 30 June 2011 between Seven Sisters and Brixtion. The last train was formed of carriage numbers 3159 + 4159 + 4059 + 3059 and 3179 + 4179 + 4079 + 3079 running as set number 247. The last service departed Seven Sisters at 18:29, once it had reached Brixton the train was tuned around to repeat the journey to Seven Sisters, the service arrived 20 minuets later than its scheduled arrival time of 19:50, these where due to other factors on the line.
The majority of the carriages where sent to C F Booth of Rotherham and scrapped, however, the carriages from the 1972 MkI stock where placed in storage at Eastleigh works to be used as spares for the Bakerloo line. Two of the motor carriages that where used on the final passenger service have been incorporated into an asset inspection train. Furthermore one four-carriage unit, numbered 3160, remains at Northumberland Park depot and was used to shunt the 2009 stock when it arrived, although its future is currently unknown. A further unit, numbered 3067, is used by the cleaning staff and is moved between various depots to allow this.
One refubished motor carriage, which Queen Elizabeth II travelled in during the official opening ceremony in 1969, motor carriage number 3052, being removed from service in 2010, is held at the London Transport Museum Acton depot in non working condition.
Motor carriage 3016 was preserved at the Walthamstow Pump House Museum until the end of their lease in 2011 when the carriage was partally scrapped on site.
Driving motor carriage number 3186 has been preserved at the Walthamstow Pump House Museum, in its experimental condition and coloured dark grey at the end of the carriage rather than white, also including transverse seating.